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A Mighty Wind at GM

By: Gary S. Vasilash 24. November 2015

Wind tunnel testing is absolutely essential for creating cars and trucks that are sufficiently slippery to cut through the air with efficiency for improved fuel efficiency.

So General Motors has added another wind tunnel—a $30-million, reduced scale wind tunnel—next to its full-size wind tunnel at its GM Tech Center research campus in Warren, Michigan.

GM Reduced Scale Wind Tunnel

GM aerodynamic engineer Nina Tortosa tests underbody airflow on a Chevrolet Cruze 40-percent scale model in General Motors' new $30-million reduced scale wind tunnel.

This is a 35,000-square-foot wind tunnel that is designed for aero testing models up to 40% of the scale of a vehicle.

One of the things that they’re doing there is creating clay models of vehicles, then using 3D printing to create components such as suspension setups complete with spinning wheels to determine the effects of airflow, and even engine blocks.

According to Ken Morris, vice president, GM Global Product Integrity, “The combined capabilities of our new reduced-scale and full-scale wind tunnels allow us to reach industry-leading levels of aerodynamic refinement. We view the new $30 million reduced scale wind tunnel as an investment towards a better, more energy-efficient future.”

The reduced-scale tunnel is equipped with a conveyor-style “rolling road” system that permits testing of real-world driving conditions—at up to 155 mph.

Don’t try that on real roads.

After Hours in L.A.

By: Gary S. Vasilash 23. November 2015

Last week’s L.A. Auto Show saw a number of important introductions from OEMs, so for this edition of “Autoline After Hours,” John McElroy and I went to the show floor to talk to some of the people who were behind some of the introductions.



There was the Lincoln MKZ, a car that has undergone a refresh so significant that to call it a “refresh” is to understate the extent to which there are changes inside, out and under the hood (as in a 400-hp turbocharged engine). So we sat down with Kumar Galhotra, the president of Lincoln and a vice president of the Ford Motor Company.

New 2017 Lincoln MKZ

Another vehicle that has been changed so much that Ford is designating it as a new generation (the fourth) is the Escape SUV. Again, this is a vehicle that has changes fore, aft, inside, and under the hood (as in two new EcoBoost engines, a 1.5-liter and 2.0-liter twin-scroll, both of which come with stop-start tech as standard). So we sat down with Milton Wong, chief engineer for the Escape.


One of the most-anticipated introductions was the Fiat 124 Spider, a reinterpretation of the car that debuted at the 1966 Turin Auto Show. And the 2017 version has its share of Italian influences, as it was penned at the Centro Stile in Turin. This is a two-seat, rear-drive soft-top. (It was developed with Mazda, which has as its version the MX-5 Miata, so the 124 Spider is a car with a 160-hp turbocharged MultiAir engine, Italian styling, and damn good bones beneath the entirely different sheet metal.) So we sat down with Bob Broderdorf, director of FIAT Brand North America to talk about the 124 Spider.

2017 Fiat 124 Spider

At the North American Auto Show in Detroit last January Buick unveiled the stylish, stately Avenir concept sedan. In Los Angeles it rolled out with the stylish, stately 2017 LaCrosse production vehicle. The LaCrosse is Buick’s flagship car, and for 2017, it has not stinted in the least bit, providing a car that is long and low, with proportions that are the kind of thing that people looking for premium automobiles are interested in. So we sat down with Tony DiSalle, vice president, Buick/GMC Marketing, to get his take on the LaCrosse, as well as Buick, which is doing rather well in the U.S. market this year.

The All – New 2017 Buick LaCrosse

In addition to which, John and I are joined by Anton Wahlman, writer for The Street and Seeking Alpha, who shares his observations on what he saw at the show—and what wasn’t there.

And you can see it all here:

Fiat 500: 1.5-million

By: Gary S. Vasilash 20. November 2015

One of the ostensible reasons for buying a Fiat 500 is the little car’s “Italian-ness.” It has style. Panache. Presence. Character. All packed into a 90.6-inch wheelbase.

2016 Fiat 500c

Funny thing about the Fiat 500, however.

Last week, there was a celebration in a plant that had just completed the build of the 1,500,000th Fiat 500, a “Pop” model painted Gelato White.

But the plant wasn’t in Turin. Rather Tychy.

Fiat 500

As in Poland.

It took eight years, four months for that number of 500s, which are sold in over 100 countries, to be built.

Incidentally. Tychy isn’t the only build location for the 500.

There is another assembly plant. Toluca.

As in Mexico.

There are, however, boatloads of Italian style.

Hyundai Elantra and Adhesives

By: Gary S. Vasilash 19. November 2015

The reveal of the 2017 Hyundai Elantra at the LA Auto Show yesterday included an emphasis on something that isn’t ordinarily spoken of in such settings:

Structural adhesives.

Elantra 1

Yet during his portion of the introduction of the sixth-generation Elantra, Mike O’Brien, vice president of corporate and product planning for Hyundai Motor America, said that he happens to be a pilot and so is greatly appreciative of technologies that can be strong, safe and light, and that airframes are transitioning from riveting to bonding.

Similarly, the engineers who developed this new car were also keenly interested in strength, safety and low mass, so this new car makes extensive use of structural adhesives.


And “extensive” means “extensive.” They’ve increased the amount of bonding on stress points of the chassis and in other places where they determined that the spot welds needed reinforcement by 40 times compared to the fifth-generation model.

The amount of advanced high-strength steel in the car is also increased. The outgoing model: 21%. The 2017 Elantra: 53%, including hot-stamped grades in the A- and B-pillars.

A consequence is that the new car has a 29.5% stiffer torsional rigidity and 25.3% greater bending strength.

We’ll learn more about the Elantra—which is the sixth best-selling car on the planet—early next year. But clearly, when they’re looking at a car right down to the bonding, it probably has some impressive ride and handling and NVH characteristics.

2017 Lincoln MKZ Revealed

By: Gary S. Vasilash 18. November 2015

Last Spring at the New York Auto Show, Lincoln unveiled what it calls the “new face of Lincoln” on the Continental Concept, a vehicle that it is to be putting into actual production (after the vehicle, of course, has been “productionized” from its conceptual form) in 2016.

Lincoln Continental Concept

Continental Concept

This Fall (today, in fact) it revealed the “new face of Lincoln” on a car that hasn’t been a concept for quite some time, on the Lincoln MKZ midsize sedan, a car that Kumar Galhorta, president of Lincoln, points out is an exceedingly important product in the brand’s portfolio.

So I ask David Woodhouse, Lincoln design director, about how close to the facial features the MKZ, which has undergone an extensive midcycle refresh, is to those of the face that is to launch sales of several thousand cars.

Lincoln 1

Real 2017 Lincoln MKZ

And he says quite close.

A key difference is that given the nature of a concept—where things are built by hand, not by machines—the depth of the grille is deeper than achieved on the MKZ.

But still, close.

While midcycles ordinarily call for front and rear fascia changes, something new under the hood, and perhaps new trim on the inside, for the MKZ they went further. Much further.

As in not only changes to the front and rear fascias (in the back the lower apron and the tailpipes, really, in the front a comprehensive transformation), but new front fenders and a new hood.

And as for the box that says “Modify the powertrain,” they’ve marked it with a giant checkmark in the form of a Lincoln-exclusive (i.e., the Ford models don’t have one) 3.0-liter turbocharged V6 that is expected to produce 400 hp and 400 lb-ft of torque. This is not performance for leaving rubber on the road surface. Rather, in Lincoln’s approach, it is for “refined and effortless performance.” Meaning that you step on the accelerator and the car moves out smartly. The MKZ with the available Driver’s Package has Dynamic Torque Vectoring, which means that torque is shifted to where it is needed to keep the car going where it is supposed to.

(They’re also offering the MKZ with a 245-hp 2.0-liter turbo four and a hybrid version. The car is available as all-wheel or front-wheel drive. And for those opting for the 3.0-liter engine and a FWD setup, know that the horsepower will be 350 though the 400 lb-ft of torque will remain the same.)

On the inside, yes they’ve changed out some of the trim. “Some” as in “all.” Woodhouse: “Every panel on the interior is changed.”

Lincoln 2

The most significant—or at least obvious—change is on the center stack, where the painted polymer has given way to real aluminum. Yes, real metal surfaces sweep down from the center of the IP. On the Driver’s Package there is the use of real carbon fiber trim to accent the aluminum. (Woodhouse says that there are two new up-trim Black Label interiors that use wood—but he points out that this is wood done in a way that doesn’t make you think of a plastic applique.)

He says that one of the drivers of making modifications to certain areas of the interior was a need for the installation of speaker grilles for the Revel audio systems available for the car.

Another change—something that will certainly set Lincoln apart from its competitors in the luxury segment, particularly the one that used to be headquartered not far from Dearborn—is that they’ve installed things like knobs, buttons and switches on the IP. It is not as though they are stinting in the least bit on the tech—they’ve got that whether the issue is connectivity or safety—but they are reacting to a demand from consumers for something that’s more automotively ergonomic.

Odd as it may sound, Lincoln is a challenger brand in the luxury space.

And from the looks of the 2017 MKZ, it is up to the challenge.

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